Using the Language of Algebra
Use Variables and Algebraic Symbols
In the following exercises, translate from algebraic notation to words.
- [latex]16 - 9[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]25 - 7[/latex]
- [latex]5\cdot 6[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]3\cdot 9[/latex]
- [latex]28\div 4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]45\div 5[/latex]
- [latex]x+8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]x+11[/latex]
- [latex]\left(2\right)\left(7\right)[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]\left(4\right)\left(8\right)[/latex]
- [latex]14<21[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]17<35[/latex]
- [latex]36\ge 19[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]42\ge 27[/latex]
- [latex]3n=24[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]6n=36[/latex]
- [latex]y - 1>6[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]y - 4>8[/latex]
- [latex]2\le 18\div 6[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]3\le 20\div 4[/latex]
- [latex]a\ne 7\cdot 4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]a\ne 1\cdot 12[/latex]
Identify Expressions and Equations
In the following exercises, determine if each is an expression or an equation.
- [latex]9\cdot 6=54[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]7\cdot 9=63[/latex]
- [latex]5\cdot 4+3[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]6\cdot 3+5[/latex]
- [latex]x+7[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]x+9[/latex]
- [latex]y - 5=25[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]y - 8=32[/latex]
Simplify Expressions with Exponents
In the following exercises, write in exponential form.
- [latex]3\cdot 3\cdot 3\cdot 3\cdot 3\cdot 3\cdot 3[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]4\cdot 4\cdot 4\cdot 4\cdot 4\cdot 4[/latex]
- [latex]x\cdot x\cdot x\cdot x\cdot x[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]y\cdot y\cdot y\cdot y\cdot y\cdot y[/latex]
Simplify Expressions with Exponents
In the following exercises, write in expanded form.
- [latex]{5}^{3}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{8}^{3}[/latex]
- [latex]{2}^{8}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{10}^{5}[/latex]
Simplify Expressions Using the Order of Operations
In the following exercises, simplify.
- [latex]3+8\cdot 5[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]\text{(3+8)}\cdot \text{5}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]2+6\cdot 3[/latex]
- [latex]\text{(2+6)}\cdot \text{3}[/latex]
- [latex]{2}^{3}-12\div \left(9 - 5\right)[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{3}^{2}-18\div \left(11 - 5\right)[/latex]
- [latex]3\cdot 8+5\cdot 2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]4\cdot 7+3\cdot 5[/latex]
- [latex]2+8\left(6+1\right)[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]4+6\left(3+6\right)[/latex]
- [latex]4\cdot 12/8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]2\cdot 36/6[/latex]
- [latex]6+10/2+2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]9+12/3+4[/latex]
- [latex]\left(6+10\right)\div \left(2+2\right)[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]\left(9+12\right)\div \left(3+4\right)[/latex]
- [latex]20\div 4+6\cdot 5[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]33\div 3+8\cdot 2[/latex]
- [latex]20\div \left(4+6\right)\cdot 5[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]33\div \left(3+8\right)\cdot 2[/latex]
- [latex]{4}^{2}+{5}^{2}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{3}^{2}+{7}^{2}[/latex]
- [latex]{\left(4+5\right)}^{2}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{\left(3+7\right)}^{2}[/latex]
- [latex]3\left(1+9\cdot 6\right)-{4}^{2}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]5\left(2+8\cdot 4\right)-{7}^{2}[/latex]
- [latex]2\left[1+3\left(10 - 2\right)\right][/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]5\left[2+4\left(3 - 2\right)\right][/latex]
Everyday Math
Basketball
In the 2014 NBA playoffs, the San Antonio Spurs beat the Miami Heat. The table below shows the heights of the starters on each team. Use this table to fill in the appropriate symbol [latex]\text{(=},\text{<},\text{>)}[/latex].
Spurs | Height | Heat | Height | |
---|---|---|---|---|
Tim Duncan | 83″ | Rashard Lewis | 82″ | |
Boris Diaw | 80″ | LeBron James | 80″ | |
Kawhi Leonard | 79″ | Chris Bosh | 83″ | |
Tony Parker | 74″ | Dwyane Wade | 76″ | |
Danny Green | 78″ | Ray Allen | 77″ |
- Height of Tim Duncan____Height of Rashard Lewis
- Height of Boris Diaw____Height of LeBron James
- Height of Kawhi Leonard____Height of Chris Bosh
- Height of Tony Parker____Height of Dwyane Wade
- Height of Danny Green____Height of Ray Allen
Elevation
In Colorado there are more than [latex]50[/latex] mountains with an elevation of over [latex]14,000\text{ feet.}[/latex] The table shows the ten tallest. Use this table to fill in the appropriate inequality symbol.
Mountain | Elevation |
---|---|
Mt. Elbert | 14,433′ |
Mt. Massive | 14,421′ |
Mt. Harvard | 14,420′ |
Blanca Peak | 14,345′ |
La Plata Peak | 14,336′ |
Uncompahgre Peak | 14,309′ |
Crestone Peak | 14,294′ |
Mt. Lincoln | 14,286′ |
Grays Peak | 14,270′ |
Mt. Antero | 14,269′ |
Elevation of La Plata Peak____Elevation of Mt. Antero
Elevation of Blanca Peak____Elevation of Mt. Elbert
Elevation of Gray’s Peak____Elevation of Mt. Lincoln
Elevation of Mt. Massive____Elevation of Crestone Peak
Elevation of Mt. Harvard____Elevation of Uncompahgre Peak
Writing Exercises
Explain the difference between an expression and an equation.
Why is it important to use the order of operations to simplify an expression?
Evaluating, Simplifying, and Translating Algebraic Expressions
Evaluate Algebraic Expressions
In the following exercises, evaluate the expression for the given value.
- [latex]7x+8\text{ when }x=2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]9x+7\text{ when }x=3[/latex]
- [latex]5x - 4\text{ when }x=6[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]8x - 6\text{ when }x=7[/latex]
- [latex]{x}^{2}\text{ when }x=12[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{x}^{3}\text{ when }x=5[/latex]
- [latex]{x}^{5}\text{ when }x=2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{x}^{4}\text{ when }x=3[/latex]
- [latex]{3}^{x}\text{ when }x=3[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{4}^{x}\text{ when }x=2[/latex]
- [latex]{x}^{2}+3x - 7\text{ when }x=4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{x}^{2}+5x - 8\text{ when }x=6[/latex]
- [latex]2x+4y - 5\text{ when }x=7,y=8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]6x+3y - 9\text{ when }x=6,y=9[/latex]
- [latex]{\left(x-y\right)}^{2}\text{ when }x=10,y=7[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{\left(x+y\right)}^{2}\text{ when }x=6,y=9[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{a}^{2}+{b}^{2}\text{ when }a=3,b=8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{r}^{2}-{s}^{2}\text{ when }r=12,s=5[/latex]
- [latex]2l+2w\text{ when }l=15,w=12[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]2l+2w\text{ when }l=18,w=14[/latex]
Identify Terms, Coefficients, and Like Terms
In the following exercises, list the terms in the given expression.
- [latex]15{x}^{2}+6x+2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]11{x}^{2}+8x+5[/latex]
- [latex]10{y}^{3}+y+2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]9{y}^{3}+y+5[/latex]
In the following exercises, identify the coefficient of the given term.
- [latex]8a[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]13m[/latex]
- [latex]5{r}^{2}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]6{x}^{3}[/latex]
In the following exercises, identify all sets of like terms.
- [latex]{x}^{3},8x,14,8y,5,8{x}^{3}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]6z,3{w}^{2},1,6{z}^{2},4z,{w}^{2}[/latex]
- [latex]9a,{a}^{2},16ab,16{b}^{2},4ab,9{b}^{2}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]3,25{r}^{2},10s,10r,4{r}^{2},3s[/latex]
Simplify Expressions by Combining Like Terms
In the following exercises, simplify the given expression by combining like terms.
- [latex]10x+3x[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]15x+4x[/latex]
- [latex]17a+9a[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]18z+9z[/latex]
- [latex]4c+2c+c[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]6y+4y+y[/latex]
- [latex]9x+3x+8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]8a+5a+9[/latex]
- [latex]7u+2+3u+1[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]8d+6+2d+5[/latex]
- [latex]7p+6+5p+4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]8x+7+4x - 5[/latex]
- [latex]10a+7+5a - 2+7a - 4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]7c+4+6c - 3+9c - 1[/latex]
- [latex]3{x}^{2}+12x+11+14{x}^{2}+8x+5[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]5{b}^{2}+9b+10+2{b}^{2}+3b - 4[/latex]
Translate English Phrases into Algebraic Expressions
In the following exercises, translate the given word phrase into an algebraic expression.
- The sum of 8 and 12
Show Solution
- The sum of 9 and 1
- The difference of 14 and 9
Show Solution
- 8 less than 19
- The product of 9 and 7
Show Solution
- The product of 8 and 7
- The quotient of 36 and 9
Show Solution
- The quotient of 42 and 7
- The difference of [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]3[/latex] less than [latex]x[/latex]
- The product of [latex]6[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex]
Show Solution
- The product of [latex]9[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex]
- The sum of [latex]8x[/latex] and [latex]3x[/latex]
Show Solution
- The sum of [latex]13x[/latex] and [latex]3x[/latex]
- The quotient of [latex]y[/latex] and [latex]3[/latex]
Show Solution
- The quotient of [latex]y[/latex] and [latex]8[/latex]
- Eight times the difference of [latex]y[/latex] and nine
Show Solution
- Seven times the difference of [latex]y[/latex] and one
- Five times the sum of [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex]
Show Solution
- Nine times five less than twice [latex]x[/latex]
Translate English Phrases into Algebraic Expressions
In the following exercises, write an algebraic expression.
- Adele bought a skirt and a blouse. The skirt cost [latex]\$15[/latex] more than the blouse. Let [latex]b[/latex] represent the cost of the blouse. Write an expression for the cost of the skirt.
Show Solution
- Eric has rock and classical CDs in his car. The number of rock CDs is [latex]3[/latex] more than the number of classical CDs. Let [latex]c[/latex] represent the number of classical CDs. Write an expression for the number of rock CDs.
- The number of girls in a second-grade class is [latex]4[/latex] less than the number of boys. Let [latex]b[/latex] represent the number of boys. Write an expression for the number of girls.
Show Solution
- Marcella has [latex]6[/latex] fewer male cousins than female cousins. Let [latex]f[/latex] represent the number of female cousins. Write an expression for the number of boy cousins.
- Greg has nickels and pennies in his pocket. The number of pennies is seven less than twice the number of nickels. Let [latex]n[/latex] represent the number of nickels. Write an expression for the number of pennies.
Show Solution
- Jeannette has [latex]\$5[/latex] and [latex]\$10[/latex] bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let [latex]t[/latex] represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
Everyday Math
In the following exercises, use algebraic expressions to solve the problem.
Car insurance
Justin’s car insurance has a [latex]\$750[/latex] deductible per incident. This means that he pays [latex]\$750[/latex] and his insurance company will pay all costs beyond [latex]\$750[/latex]. If Justin files a claim for [latex]\$2,100[/latex], how much will he pay, and how much will his insurance company pay?
Home insurance
Pam and Armando’s home insurance has a [latex]\$2,500[/latex] deductible per incident. This means that they pay [latex]\$2,500[/latex] and their insurance company will pay all costs beyond [latex]\$2,500[/latex]. If Pam and Armando file a claim for [latex]\$19,400[/latex], how much will they pay, and how much will their insurance company pay?
Writing Exercises
Explain why “the sum of x and y” is the same as “the sum of y and x,” but “the difference of x and y” is not the same as “the difference of y and x.” Try substituting two random numbers for [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex] to help you explain.
Explain the difference between “[latex]4[/latex] times the sum of [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex]” and “the sum of [latex]4[/latex] times [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex].”
Subtraction Property of Equality
Determine Whether a Number is a Solution of an Equation
In the following exercises, determine whether each given value is a solution to the equation.
Exercise 1
[latex]x+13=21[/latex]
- [latex]x=8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]x=34[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 2
[latex]y+18=25[/latex]
- [latex]y=7[/latex]
- [latex]y=43[/latex]
Exercise 3
[latex]m - 4=13[/latex]
- [latex]m=9[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]m=17[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 4
[latex]n - 9=6[/latex]
- [latex]n=3[/latex]
- [latex]n=15[/latex]
Exercise 5
[latex]3p+6=15[/latex]
- [latex]p=3[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]p=7[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 6
[latex]8q+4=20[/latex]
- [latex]q=2[/latex]
- [latex]q=3[/latex]
Exercise 7
[latex]18d - 9=27[/latex]
- [latex]d=1[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]d=2[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 8
[latex]24f - 12=60[/latex]
- [latex]f=2[/latex]
- [latex]f=3[/latex]
Exercise 9
[latex]8u - 4=4u+40[/latex]
- [latex]u=3[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]u=11[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 10
[latex]7v - 3=4v+36[/latex]
- [latex]v=3[/latex]
- [latex]v=11[/latex]
Exercise 11
[latex]20h - 5=15h+35[/latex]
- [latex]h=6[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]h=8[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 12
[latex]18k - 3=12k+33[/latex]
- [latex]k=1[/latex]
- [latex]k=6[/latex]
Model the Subtraction Property of Equality
In the following exercises, write the equation modeled by the envelopes and counters and then solve using the subtraction property of equality.
Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3
Exercise 4
Solve Equations using the Subtraction Property of Equality
In the following exercises, solve each equation using the subtraction property of equality.
- [latex]a+2=18[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]b+5=13[/latex]
- [latex]p+18=23[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]q+14=31[/latex]
- [latex]r+76=100[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]s+62=95[/latex]
- [latex]16=x+9[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]17=y+6[/latex]
- [latex]93=p+24[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]116=q+79[/latex]
- [latex]465=d+398[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]932=c+641[/latex]
Solve Equations using the Addition Property of Equality
In the following exercises, solve each equation using the addition property of equality.
- [latex]y - 3=19[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]x - 4=12[/latex]
- [latex]u - 6=24[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]v - 7=35[/latex]
- [latex]f - 55=123[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]g - 39=117[/latex]
- [latex]19=n - 13[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]18=m - 15[/latex]
- [latex]10=p - 38[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]18=q - 72[/latex]
- [latex]268=y - 199[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]204=z - 149[/latex]
Translate Word Phrase to Algebraic Equations
In the following exercises, translate the given sentence into an algebraic equation.
- The sum of [latex]8[/latex] and [latex]9[/latex] is equal to [latex]17[/latex].
Show Solution
- The sum of [latex]7[/latex] and [latex]9[/latex] is equal to [latex]16[/latex].
- The difference of [latex]23[/latex] and [latex]19[/latex] is equal to [latex]4[/latex].
Show Solution
- The difference of [latex]29[/latex] and [latex]12[/latex] is equal to [latex]17[/latex].
- The product of [latex]3[/latex] and [latex]9[/latex] is equal to [latex]27[/latex].
Show Solution
- The product of [latex]6[/latex] and [latex]8[/latex] is equal to [latex]48[/latex].
- The quotient of [latex]54[/latex] and [latex]6[/latex] is equal to [latex]9[/latex].
Show Solution
- The quotient of [latex]42[/latex] and [latex]7[/latex] is equal to [latex]6[/latex].
- Twice the difference of [latex]n[/latex] and [latex]10[/latex] gives [latex]52[/latex].
Show Solution
- Twice the difference of [latex]m[/latex] and [latex]14[/latex] gives [latex]64[/latex].
- The sum of three times [latex]y[/latex] and [latex]10[/latex] is [latex]100[/latex].
Show Solution
- The sum of eight times [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]4[/latex] is [latex]68[/latex].
Translate to an Equation and Solve
In the following exercises, translate the given sentence into an algebraic equation and then solve it.
- Five more than [latex]p[/latex] is equal to [latex]21[/latex].
Show Solution
- Nine more than [latex]q[/latex] is equal to [latex]40[/latex].
- The sum of [latex]r[/latex] and [latex]18[/latex] is [latex]73[/latex].
Show Solution
- The sum of [latex]s[/latex] and [latex]13[/latex] is [latex]68[/latex].
- The difference of [latex]d[/latex] and [latex]30[/latex] is equal to [latex]52[/latex].
Show Solution
- The difference of [latex]c[/latex] and [latex]25[/latex] is equal to [latex]75[/latex].
- [latex]12[/latex] less than [latex]u[/latex] is [latex]89[/latex].
Show Solution
- [latex]19[/latex] less than [latex]w[/latex] is [latex]56[/latex].
- [latex]325[/latex] less than [latex]c[/latex] gives [latex]799[/latex].
Show Solution
- [latex]299[/latex] less than [latex]d[/latex] gives [latex]850[/latex].
Everyday Math
Insurance
Vince’s car insurance has a [latex]\$500[/latex] deductible. Find the amount the insurance company will pay, [latex]p[/latex], for an [latex]\$1800[/latex] claim by solving the equation [latex]500+p=1800[/latex].
Insurance
Marta’s homeowner’s insurance policy has a [latex]\$750[/latex] deductible. The insurance company paid [latex]\$5800[/latex] to repair damages caused by a storm. Find the total cost of the storm damage, [latex]d[/latex], by solving the equation [latex]d - 750=5800[/latex].
Sale purchase
Arthur bought a suit that was on sale for [latex]\$120[/latex] off. He paid [latex]\$340[/latex] for the suit. Find the original price, [latex]p[/latex], of the suit by solving the equation [latex]p - 120=340[/latex].
Sale purchase
Rita bought a sofa that was on sale for [latex]\$1299[/latex]. She paid a total of [latex]\$1409[/latex], including sales tax. Find the amount of the sales tax, [latex]t[/latex], by solving the equation [latex]1299+t=1409[/latex].
Writing Exercises
Is [latex]x=1[/latex] a solution to the equation [latex]8x - 2=16 - 6x?[/latex] How do you know?
Write the equation [latex]y - 5=21[/latex] in words. Then make up a word problem for this equation.
Finding Multiples and Factors
Identify Multiples of Numbers
In the following exercises, list all the multiples less than [latex]50[/latex] for the given number.
- [latex]2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]3[/latex]
- [latex]4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]5[/latex]
- [latex]6[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]7[/latex]
- [latex]8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]9[/latex]
- [latex]10[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]12[/latex]
Use Common Divisibility Tests
In the following exercises, use the divisibility tests to determine whether each number is divisible by [latex]2,3,4,5,6,\text{and}10[/latex].
- [latex]84[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]96[/latex]
- [latex]75[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]78[/latex]
- [latex]168[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]264[/latex]
- [latex]900[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]800[/latex]
- [latex]896[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]942[/latex]
- [latex]375[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]750[/latex]
- [latex]350[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]550[/latex]
- [latex]1430[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]1080[/latex]
- [latex]22,335[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]39,075[/latex]
Find All the Factors of a Number
In the following exercises, find all the factors of the given number.
- [latex]36[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]42[/latex]
- [latex]60[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]48[/latex]
- [latex]144[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]200[/latex]
- [latex]588[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]576[/latex]
Identify Prime and Composite Numbers
In the following exercises, determine if the given number is prime or composite.
- [latex]43[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]67[/latex]
- [latex]39[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]53[/latex]
- [latex]71[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]119[/latex]
- [latex]481[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]221[/latex]
- [latex]209[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]359[/latex]
- [latex]667[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]1771[/latex]
Everyday Math
Banking
Frank’s grandmother gave him [latex]\$100[/latex] at his high school graduation. Instead of spending it, Frank opened a bank account. Every week, he added [latex]\$15[/latex] to the account. The table shows how much money Frank had put in the account by the end of each week. Complete the table by filling in the blanks.
Weeks after graduation | Total number of dollars Frank put in the account | Simplified Total |
---|---|---|
[latex]0[/latex] | [latex]100[/latex] | [latex]100[/latex] |
[latex]1[/latex] | [latex]100+15[/latex] | [latex]115[/latex] |
[latex]2[/latex] | [latex]100+15\cdot 2[/latex] | [latex]130[/latex] |
[latex]3[/latex] | [latex]100+15\cdot 3[/latex] | |
[latex]4[/latex] | [latex]100+15\cdot \left[\right][/latex] | |
[latex]5[/latex] | [latex]100+\left[\right][/latex] | |
[latex]6[/latex] | ||
[latex]20[/latex] | ||
[latex]x[/latex] |
Banking
In March, Gina opened a Christmas club savings account at her bank. She deposited [latex]\$75[/latex] to open the account. Every week, she added [latex]\$20[/latex] to the account. The table shows how much money Gina had put in the account by the end of each week. Complete the table by filling in the blanks.
Weeks after opening the account | Total number of dollars Gina put in the account | Simplified Total |
---|---|---|
[latex]0[/latex] | [latex]75[/latex] | [latex]75[/latex] |
[latex]1[/latex] | [latex]75+20[/latex] | [latex]95[/latex] |
[latex]2[/latex] | [latex]75+20\cdot 2[/latex] | [latex]115[/latex] |
[latex]3[/latex] | [latex]75+20\cdot 3[/latex] | |
[latex]4[/latex] | [latex]75+20\cdot \left[\right][/latex] | |
[latex]5[/latex] | [latex]75+\left[\right][/latex] | |
[latex]6[/latex] | ||
[latex]20[/latex] | ||
[latex]x[/latex] |
Writing Exercises
If a number is divisible by [latex]2[/latex] and by [latex]3[/latex], why is it also divisible by [latex]6?[/latex]
What is the difference between prime numbers and composite numbers?
Prime Factorization and the Least Common Multiple
Find the Prime Factorization of a Composite Number
In the following exercises, find the prime factorization of each number using the factor tree method.
- [latex]86[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]78[/latex]
- [latex]132[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]455[/latex]
- [latex]693[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]420[/latex]
- [latex]115[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]225[/latex]
- [latex]2475[/latex]
Show Solution
- 1560
Find the Prime Factorization of a Composite Number
In the following exercises, find the prime factorization of each number using the ladder method.
- [latex]56[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]72[/latex]
- [latex]168[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]252[/latex]
- [latex]391[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]400[/latex]
- [latex]432[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]627[/latex]
- [latex]2160[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]2520[/latex]
Find the Prime Factorization of a Composite Number
In the following exercises, find the prime factorization of each number using any method.
- [latex]150[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]180[/latex]
- [latex]525[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]444[/latex]
- [latex]36[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]50[/latex]
- [latex]350[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]144[/latex]
Find the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of Two Numbers
In the following exercises, find the least common multiple (LCM) by listing multiples.
- [latex]8,12[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]4,3[/latex]
- [latex]6,15[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]12,16[/latex]
- [latex]30,40[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]20,30[/latex]
- [latex]60,75[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]44,55[/latex]
Find the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of Two Numbers
In the following exercises, find the least common multiple (LCM) by using the prime factors method.
- [latex]8,12[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]12,16[/latex]
- [latex]24,30[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]28,40[/latex]
- [latex]70,84[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]84,90[/latex]
Find the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of Two Numbers
In the following exercises, find the least common multiple (LCM) using any method.
- [latex]6,21[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]9,15[/latex]
- [latex]24,30[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]32,40[/latex]
Everyday Math
Grocery shopping
Hot dogs are sold in packages of ten, but hot dog buns come in packs of eight. What is the smallest number of hot dogs and buns that can be purchased if you want to have the same number of hot dogs and buns? (Hint: it is the LCM!)
Grocery shopping
Paper plates are sold in packages of [latex]12[/latex] and party cups come in packs of [latex]8[/latex]. What is the smallest number of plates and cups you can purchase if you want to have the same number of each? (Hint: it is the LCM!)
Writing Exercises
Do you prefer to find the prime factorization of a composite number by using the factor tree method or the ladder method? Why?
Do you prefer to find the LCM by listing multiples or by using the prime factors method? Why?
Chapter Review Exercises
Use the Language of Algebra
Use Variables and Algebraic Symbols
In the following exercises, translate from algebra to English.
- [latex]3\cdot 8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]12-x[/latex]
- [latex]24\div 6[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]9+2a[/latex]
- [latex]50\ge 47[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]3y<15[/latex]
- [latex]n+4=13[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]32-k=7[/latex]
Identify Expressions and Equations
In the following exercises, determine if each is an expression or equation.
- [latex]5+u=84[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]36 - 6s[/latex]
- [latex]4y - 11[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]10x=120[/latex]
Simplify Expressions with Exponents
In the following exercises, write in exponential form.
- [latex]2\cdot 2\cdot 2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]a\cdot a\cdot a\cdot a\cdot a[/latex]
- [latex]x\cdot x\cdot x\cdot x\cdot x\cdot x[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]10\cdot 10\cdot 10[/latex]
Simplify Expressions with Exponents
In the following exercises, write in expanded form.
- [latex]{8}^{4}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{3}^{6}[/latex]
- [latex]{y}^{5}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{n}^{4}[/latex]
Simplify Expressions with Exponents
In the following exercises, simplify each expression.
- [latex]{3}^{4}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{10}^{6}[/latex]
- [latex]{2}^{7}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{4}^{3}[/latex]
Simplify Expressions Using the Order of Operations
In the following exercises, simplify.
- [latex]10+2\cdot 5[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]\left(10+2\right)\cdot 5[/latex]
- [latex]\left(30+6\right)\div 2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]30+6\div 2[/latex]
- [latex]{7}^{2}+{5}^{2}[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{\left(7+5\right)}^{2}[/latex]
- [latex]4+3\left(10 - 1\right)[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]\left(4+3\right)\left(10 - 1\right)[/latex]
Evaluate, Simplify, and Translate Expressions
Evaluate an Expression
In the following exercises, evaluate the following expressions.
- [latex]9x - 5\text{ when }x=7[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{y}^{3}\text{ when }y=5[/latex]
- [latex]3a - 4b[/latex] when [latex]a=10,b=1[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]bh\text{ when }b=7,h=8[/latex]
Identify Terms, Coefficients and Like Terms
In the following exercises, identify the terms in each expression.
- [latex]12{n}^{2}+3n+1[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]4{x}^{3}+11x+3[/latex]
Identify Terms, Coefficients and Like Terms
In the following exercises, identify the coefficient of each term.
- [latex]6y[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]13{x}^{2}[/latex]
In the following exercises, identify the like terms.
- [latex]5{x}^{2},3,5{y}^{2},3x,x,4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]8,8{r}^{2},\text{8}r,3r,{r}^{2},3s[/latex]
Simplify Expressions by Combining Like Terms
In the following exercises, simplify the following expressions by combining like terms.
- [latex]15a+9a[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]12y+3y+y[/latex]
- [latex]4x+7x+3x[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]6+5c+3[/latex]
- [latex]8n+2+4n+9[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]19p+5+4p - 1+3p[/latex]
- [latex]7{y}^{2}+2y+11+3{y}^{2}-8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]13{x}^{2}-x+6+5{x}^{2}+9x[/latex]
Translate English Phrases to Algebraic Expressions
In the following exercises, translate the following phrases into algebraic expressions.
- the difference of [latex]x[/latex] and [latex]6[/latex]
Show Solution
- the sum of [latex]10[/latex] and twice [latex]a[/latex]
- the product of [latex]3n[/latex] and [latex]9[/latex]
Show Solution
- the quotient of [latex]s[/latex] and [latex]4[/latex]
- [latex]5[/latex] times the sum of [latex]y[/latex] and [latex]1[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]10[/latex] less than the product of [latex]5[/latex] and [latex]z[/latex]
Translate English Phrases to Algebraic Expressions
In the following exercises, write the algebraic expressions that can be found in each sentence.
- Jack bought a sandwich and a coffee. The cost of the sandwich was [latex]\$3[/latex] more than the cost of the coffee. Call the cost of the coffee [latex]c[/latex]. Write an expression for the cost of the sandwich.
Show Solution
- The number of poetry books on Brianna’s bookshelf is [latex]5[/latex] less than twice the number of novels. Call the number of novels [latex]n[/latex]. Write an expression for the number of poetry books.
Subtraction Property of Equality
Determine Whether a Number is a Solution of an Equation
In the following exercises, determine whether each number is a solution to the equation.
Exercise 1
[latex]y+16=40[/latex]
- [latex]24[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]56[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 2
[latex]d - 6=21[/latex]
- [latex]15[/latex]
- [latex]27[/latex]
Exercise 3
[latex]4n+12=36[/latex]
- [latex]6[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]12[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 4
[latex]20q - 10=70[/latex]
- [latex]3[/latex]
- [latex]4[/latex]
Exercise 5
[latex]15x - 5=10x+45[/latex]
- [latex]2[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]10[/latex]
Show Solution
Exercise 6
[latex]22p - 6=18p+86[/latex]
- [latex]4[/latex]
- [latex]23[/latex]
Model the Subtraction Property of Equality
In the following exercises, write the equation modeled by the envelopes and counters and then solve the equation using the subtraction property of equality.
Solve Equations using the Subtraction Property of Equality
In the following exercises, solve each equation using the subtraction property of equality.
- [latex]c+8=14[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]v+8=150[/latex]
- [latex]23=x+12[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]376=n+265[/latex]
Solve Equations using the Addition Property of Equality
In the following exercises, solve each equation using the addition property of equality.
- [latex]y - 7=16[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]k - 42=113[/latex]
- [latex]19=p - 15[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]501=u - 399[/latex]
Translate English Sentences to Algebraic Equations
In the following exercises, translate each English sentence into an algebraic equation.
- The sum of [latex]7[/latex] and [latex]33[/latex] is equal to [latex]40[/latex].
Show Solution
- The difference of [latex]15[/latex] and [latex]3[/latex] is equal to [latex]12[/latex].
- The product of [latex]4[/latex] and [latex]8[/latex] is equal to [latex]32[/latex].
Show Solution
- The quotient of [latex]63[/latex] and [latex]9[/latex] is equal to [latex]7[/latex].
- Twice the difference of [latex]n[/latex] and [latex]3[/latex] gives [latex]76[/latex].
Show Solution
- The sum of five times [latex]y[/latex] and [latex]4[/latex] is [latex]89[/latex].
Translate to an Equation and Solve
In the following exercises, translate each English sentence into an algebraic equation and then solve it.
- Eight more than [latex]x[/latex] is equal to [latex]35[/latex].
Show Solution
- [latex]21[/latex] less than [latex]a[/latex] is [latex]11[/latex].
- The difference of [latex]q[/latex] and [latex]18[/latex] is [latex]57[/latex].
Show Solution
- The sum of [latex]m[/latex] and [latex]125[/latex] is [latex]240[/latex].
Mixed Practice
In the following exercises, solve each equation.
- [latex]h - 15=27[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]k - 11=34[/latex]
- [latex]z+52=85[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]x+93=114[/latex]
- [latex]27=q+19[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]38=p+19[/latex]
- [latex]31=v - 25[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]38=u - 16[/latex]
Finding Multiples and Factors
Identify Multiples of Numbers
In the following exercises, list all the multiples less than [latex]50[/latex] for each of the following.
- [latex]3[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]2[/latex]
- [latex]8[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]10[/latex]
Use Common Divisibility Tests
In the following exercises, using the divisibility tests, determine whether each number is divisible by 2, by 3, by 5, by 6, and by 10.
- [latex]96[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]250[/latex]
- [latex]420[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]625[/latex]
Find All the Factors of a Number
In the following exercises, find all the factors of each number.
- [latex]30[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]70[/latex]
- [latex]180[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]378[/latex]
Identify Prime and Composite Numbers
In the following exercises, identify each number as prime or composite.
- [latex]19[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]51[/latex]
- [latex]121[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]219[/latex]
Prime Factorization and the Least Common Multiple
Find the Prime Factorization of a Composite Number
In the following exercises, find the prime factorization of each number.
- [latex]84[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]165[/latex]
- [latex]350[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]572[/latex]
Find the Least Common Multiple of Two Numbers
In the following exercises, find the least common multiple of each pair of numbers.
- [latex]9,15[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]12,20[/latex]
- [latex]25,35[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]18,40[/latex]
Everyday Math
Describe how you have used two topics from The Language of Algebra chapter in your life outside of your math class during the past month.
Chapter Practice Test
In the following exercises, translate from an algebraic equation to English phrases.
- [latex]6\cdot 4[/latex]
- [latex]15-x[/latex]
Show Solution
In the following exercises, identify each as an expression or equation.
- [latex]5\cdot 8+10[/latex]
- [latex]x+6=9[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]3\cdot 11=33[/latex]
- Write [latex]n\cdot n\cdot n\cdot n\cdot n\cdot n[/latex] in exponential form.
Show Solution
- Write [latex]{3}^{5}[/latex] in expanded form and then simplify.
Show Solution
In the following exercises, simplify, using the order of operations.
- [latex]4+3\cdot 5[/latex]
- [latex]\left(8+1\right)\cdot 4[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]1+6\left(3 - 1\right)[/latex]
- [latex]\left(8+4\right)\div 3+1[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]{\left(1+4\right)}^{2}[/latex]
- [latex]5\left[2+7\left(9 - 8\right)\right][/latex]
Show Solution
In the following exercises, evaluate each expression.
- [latex]8x - 3\text{ when }x=4[/latex]
- [latex]{y}^{3}\text{ when }y=5[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]6a - 2b\text{ when }a=5,b=7[/latex]
- [latex]hw\text{ when }h=12,w=3[/latex]
Show Solution
Simplify by combining like terms.
- [latex]6x+8x[/latex]
- [latex]9m+10+m+3[/latex]
In the following exercises, translate each phrase into an algebraic expression.
- [latex]5[/latex] more than [latex]x[/latex]
Show Solution
- the quotient of [latex]12[/latex] and [latex]y[/latex]
- three times the difference of [latex]a\text{ and }b[/latex]
Show Solution
- Caroline has [latex]3[/latex] fewer earrings on her left ear than on her right ear. Call the number of earrings on her right ear, [latex]r[/latex]. Write an expression for the number of earrings on her left ear.
In the following exercises, solve each equation.
- [latex]n - 6=25[/latex]
Show Solution
- [latex]x+58=71[/latex]
In the following exercises, translate each English sentence into an algebraic equation and then solve it.
- [latex]15[/latex] less than [latex]y[/latex] is [latex]32[/latex].
Show Solution
- the sum of [latex]a[/latex] and [latex]129[/latex] is [latex]164[/latex].
- List all the multiples of [latex]4[/latex], that are less than [latex]50[/latex].
Show Solution
- Find all the factors of [latex]90[/latex].
- Find the prime factorization of [latex]1080[/latex].
Show Solution
- Find the LCM (Least Common Multiple) of [latex]24[/latex] and [latex]40[/latex].