- Describe the ADDIE Model of instructional design
ADDIE is the classic model of instructional design that is used for developing educational and training programs and instructional materials. ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation, the five steps in the design process, detailed below:
Analysis: Identify the performance gap
The analysis phase involves identifying and clarifying the instructional problem or, from a training standpoint, identifying the performance gap and desired outcomes. This phase includes identifying participant characteristics (for example, current knowledge and skills, level of experience, language proficiency and motivation), learning resources and budget and time constraints, defining the learning environment and establishing instructional goals and objectives.
Design: Identify the learning objectives
The design phase involves subject matter design broadly, including defining specific learning objectives and instructional strategies, structuring content and assessments. The design should reflect a logical flow. Assessments should provide feedback on the learner’s progress in achieving the learning objectives.
Development: Develop a performance solution
As the title indicates, the development phase involves creating/curating and assembling the content specified in the design phase. This phase also involves stakeholder review and validation and any required revisions. This phase may involve integration of technology and related testing.
Implementation: Deliver the performance solution
Implementation involves development of the training framework, including course curriculum, learning outcomes and the learning space. The process should also include confirming the availability of required materials and associated applications or websites and preparing learners to use any required tools or technology. The final step, of course, is participant engagement.
Evaluation: Evaluate the results relative to the performance objectives.
Although evaluation is listed last, in practice it is included in every aspect of the process. That is, the overall design process is meant to be iterative, with elements fine-tuned along the way. Interim evaluations, referred to as formative evaluations, are those that are conducted prior to implementation to confirm that the learning resources meet the specifications established in the design phase. A summative evaluation would be conducted after implementation to determine training effectiveness on three bases: participant satisfaction, participant learning and participant performance.