Properties of Elements

Learning Outcomes

  • Identify the properties of elements given a periodic table

Atomic Number and Mass

Each element has its own unique properties. Each contains a different number of protons and neutrons, giving it its own atomic number and mass number. The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons that element contains. The mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons of that element. Therefore, it is possible to determine the number of neutrons by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.

These numbers provide information about the elements and how they will react when combined. Different elements have different melting and boiling points, and are in different states (liquid, solid, or gas) at room temperature. They also combine in different ways. Some form specific types of bonds, whereas others do not. How they combine is based on the number of electrons present. Because of these characteristics, the elements are arranged into the periodic table of elements, a chart of the elements that includes the atomic number and relative atomic mass of each element. The periodic table also provides key information about the properties of elements (Figure 1)—often indicated by color-coding. The arrangement of the table also shows how the electrons in each element are organized and provides important details about how atoms will react with each other to form molecules.

The periodic table consists of eighteen groups and seven periods. Two additional rows of elements, known as the lanthanides and actinides, are placed beneath the main table. The lanthanides include elements 57 through 71 and belong in period seven between groups three and four. The actinides include elements 89 through 98 and belong in period eight between the same groups. These elements are placed separately to make the table more compact. For each element, the name, atomic symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass are provided. The atomic number is a whole number that represents the number of protons. The atomic mass, which is the average mass of different isotopes, is estimated to two decimal places. For example, hydrogen has the atomic symbol H, the atomic number 1, and an atomic mass of 1.01. The atomic mass is always larger that the atomic number. For most small elements, the atomic mass is approximately double the atomic number as the number of protons and neutrons is about equal. The elements are divided into three categories: metals, nonmetals and metalloids. These form a diagonal line from period two, group thirteen to period seven, group sixteen. All elements to the left of the metalloids are metals, and all elements to the right are nonmetals.

Figure 1. Arranged in columns and rows based on the characteristics of the elements, the periodic table provides key information about the elements and how they might interact with each other to form molecules. Most periodic tables provide a key or legend to the information they contain.

Practice Question

Complete the following table with information from the periodic table

Name of Element Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Mass (Round to the nearest whole number)
Beryllium
8
C
32
Na

Element Interactions

How elements interact with one another depends on how their electrons are arranged and how many openings for electrons exist at the outermost region where electrons are present in an atom. Electrons exist at energy levels that form shells around the nucleus. The closest shell can hold up to two electrons. The closest shell to the nucleus is always filled first, before any other shell can be filled. Hydrogen has one electron; therefore, it has only one spot occupied within the lowest shell. Helium has two electrons; therefore, it can completely fill the lowest shell with its two electrons. If you look at the periodic table, you will see that hydrogen and helium are the only two elements in the first row. This is because they only have electrons in their first shell. Hydrogen and helium are the only two elements that have the lowest shell and no other shells.

The second and third energy levels can hold up to eight electrons. The eight electrons are arranged in four pairs and one position in each pair is filled with an electron before any pairs are completed.

Bohr diagrams of elements from groups 1, 14, 17 and 18, and periods 1, 2 and 3 are shown. Period 1, in which the 1n shell is filling, contains hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen, in group 1, has one valence electron. Helium, in group 18, has two valence electrons. The 1n shell holds a maximum of two electrons, so the shell is full and the electron configuration is stable. Period 2, in which the 2n shell is filling, contains lithium, carbon, fluorine, and neon. Lithium, in group 1, has 1 valence electron. Carbon, in group 14, has 4 valence electrons. Fluorine, in group 17, has 7 valence electrons. Neon, in group 18, has 8 valence electrons, a full octet. Period 3, in which the 3n shell is filling, contains sodium, silicon, chlorine, and argon. Sodium, in group 1, has 1 valence electron. Silicon, in group 14, has 4 valence electrons. Chlorine, in group 17, has 7 valence electrons. Argon, in group 18, has 8 valence electrons, a full octet.

Figure 2. Bohr diagrams for hydrogen, helium, lithium, carbon, fluorine, neon, sodium, silicon, chlorine, and argon.

Looking at the periodic table again (Figure 1), you will notice that there are seven rows. These rows correspond to the number of shells that the elements within that row have. The elements within a particular row have increasing numbers of electrons as the columns proceed from left to right. Although each element has the same number of shells, not all of the shells are completely filled with electrons. If you look at the second row of the periodic table, you will find lithium (Li), beryllium (Be), boron (B), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), fluorine (F), and neon (Ne). These all have electrons that occupy only the first and second shells. Lithium has only one electron in its outermost shell, beryllium has two electrons, boron has three, and so on, until the entire shell is filled with eight electrons, as is the case with neon.

A detailed figure of the electron shells for each element can be found here.

Try It

Contribute!

Did you have an idea for improving this content? We’d love your input.

Improve this pageLearn More