- Identify the characteristics and stages of mitosis
The mitotic phase (also known as M phase) is a multistep process during which the duplicated chromosomes are aligned, separated, and move into two new, identical daughter cells. The first portion of the mitotic phase is called karyokinesis, or nuclear division. The second portion of the mitotic phase, called cytokinesis, is the physical separation of the cytoplasmic components into the two daughter cells.
Karyokinesis, also known as mitosis, is divided into a series of phases—prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase—that result in the division of the cell (Figure 1).
During prophase, the “first phase,”the nuclear envelope starts to dissociate into small vesicles, and the membranous organelles (such as the Golgi complex [Golgi apparatus] and the endoplasmic reticulum), fragment and disperse toward the periphery of the cell. The nucleolus disappears (disperses) as well, and the centrosomes begin to move to opposite poles of the cell. Microtubules that will form the mitotic spindle extend between the centrosomes, pushing them farther apart as the microtubule fibers lengthen. The sister chromatids begin to coil more tightly with the aid of condensin proteins and now become visible under a light microscope.
During prometaphase, many processes that began in prophase continue to advance. The remnants of the nuclear envelope fragment further, and the mitotic spindle continues to develop as more microtubules assemble and stretch across the length of the former nuclear area. Chromosomes become even more condensed and discrete. Each sister chromatid develops a protein structure called a kinetochore in its centromeric region (Figure 2). The proteins of the kinetochore attract and bind to the mitotic spindle microtubules. As the spindle microtubules extend from the centrosomes, some of these microtubules come into contact with and firmly bind to the kinetochores. Once a mitotic fiber attaches to a chromosome, the chromosome will be oriented until the kinetochores of sister chromatids face the opposite poles. Eventually, all the sister chromatids will be attached via their kinetochores to microtubules from opposing poles. Spindle microtubules that do not engage the chromosomes are called polar microtubules. These microtubules overlap each other midway between the two poles and contribute to cell elongation. Astral microtubules are located near the poles, aid in spindle orientation, and are required for the regulation of mitosis.
During metaphase, all the chromosomes are aligned in a plane called the metaphase plate, or the equatorial plane, midway between the two poles of the cell. At this time, the chromosomes are maximally condensed.
During anaphase, the sister chromatids separate at the centromere. Each chromatid, now called a chromosome, is pulled rapidly toward the centrosome to which its microtubule is attached. The cell becomes visibly elongated (oval shaped) as the polar microtubules slide against each other at the metaphase plate where they overlap.
During telophase, the chromosomes reach the opposite poles and begin to decondense (unravel), relaxing into a chromatin configuration. Nuclear envelopes form around the chromosomes, and nucleosomes appear within the nuclear area.
The activity below will walk you through mitosis—providing you with the chance to review the different steps of the process and how they work together.