Click on each link below for a review summary to help you complete the assignments and prepare for the quiz to demonstrate your mastery of the objectives.
There are two ways to indicate possession in Spanish. One way is to use the verb ser in the following pattern: object(s) + ser de + person who has the object(s)
Los adjetivos posesivos
A more common way to express possession, especially when it is clear to whom something belongs, is to use possessive adjectives:
|singular possessor||plural possessor|
|mi (my)||nuestro (our)|
|tu (your)||vuestro (your)|
|su (his, her, your)||su (their, your)|
Atención a la acentuación: Tú con tilde, se refiere a la persona (Tú, with accent mark, refers to the person “you”); Tu, sin tilde, es el adjetivo posesivo (Tu, without accent mark, is the possessive adjective “your”).
The chart above, however, only shows the basic form. Possessive adjectives in Spanish – like all adjectives! – must agree in number. In the case of nosotros and vosotros, they also must agree in gender with what is owned.
- El abuelo / La abuela (Grandfather/Grandmother)
- El amigo / La amiga (friend)
- El esposo / La esposa (husband wife)
- El hermano / La hermana (brother sister)
- El hijo / La hija (son daughter)
- La madre / mamá (mother/ mom)
- El nieto / La nieta (grandchild granddaughter)
- El novio / La novia (boyfriend girlfriend)
- El padre / papá (father dad)
- La pareja (couple)
- El pariente (relative)
- El primo / La prima (cousin)
- El sobrino / La sobrina (nephew / niece)
- El tío / La tía (uncle aunt)
- La cuñada / el cuñado (sister-in-law brother-in-law)
- Los medio hermanos / el medio hermano/ la media hermana (half brothers half brother half sister)
- Los hermanastros / el hermanastro / la hermanastra (stepbrothers stepbrother stepsister)
- El hijastro / La hijastra (stepson stepdaughter)
- La madrastra / El padrastro (stepmother stepfather)
- la suegra / el suegro (mother-in-law father-in-law)
Tipos de familias:
- Familia nuclear o pequeña
- Familia extendida o grande
- Primera, segunda, tercera generación
- La familia política
- La familia moderna
- La familia tradicional
El aspecto físico
You may recall using cuánto in the question “¿Cuántos años tienes?”. We use this question word before a noun when that noun may be counted or measured. ¿Cuánto/cuántos? means “how many” if the noun is countable (meaning you can count up by adding more of the items), and means “how much” if the noun is uncountable (meaning an indivisible, collective thing).
- ¿Cuánto cuesta? (How much does it cost?)
- ¿Cuántos dólares tienes? (How many dollars do you have?)
¡Be careful! ¿Cuánto? must agree in number and gender with the noun it describes.
- Masculine singular: ¿Cuánto tiempo tenemos?
- Feminine singular: ¿Cuánta luz entra por la ventana?
- Masculine plural: ¿Cuántos perros tienes en casa?
- Feminine plural: ¿Cuántas hermanas tienes?
The question “Who speaks Spanish?” uses the pronoun “who” as a subject. Just like in English, the Spanish question ¿Quién habla español? uses the pronoun quién as the subject. Quién is the singular version of “who,” and is meant to represent one person. Therefore, the verb is conjugated in the él/ella form as if one person were the subject of the sentence.
- ¿Quién es tu hermano? Who is your brother? (assuming that you only have one brother)
Quiénes is the plural version of “who,” and is meant to represent multiple people. Here you would use the ellos/ellas form of the verb.
- Por ejemplo: ¿Quiénes son tus padres? Who are your parents? (assuming that you have both parents)
To answer the question “¿De dónde eres?”, one can either answer with a country or with a nationality:
- Soy de Puerto Rico. (I am from Puerto Rico.)
- Soy puertorriqueña. (I am Puerto Rican.)
- Mis primos son de Colombia. (My cousins are from Colombia.)
- Son colombianos. (They are Colombian.)
A description of nationality is an adjective, so its ending has to correspond to the gender and number of the subject.
Costa Rica, costarricense
El Salvador, salvadoreña/o
Estados Unidos, estadounidense
República Dominicana, dominicana/o
España, español/ española
The verb gustar is used to indicate things or activities you like, but it is a little different in Spanish than in English. You’ll learn more about how gustar and other verbs like it work later, but for now you can see how it is used with infinitives:
|1a (1st)||me gusta||nos gusta|
|2a (2nd)||te gusta||os gusta|
|3a (3rd)||le gusta||les gusta|
As you see, instead of conjugating gustar to match the subject as you do with most verbs, only the third person ending is used along with different pronouns (me, te, le, nos, os, les). Gustar is frequently used in Spanish with infinitives to indicate likes (and dislikes):
You have already learned the verb ser, and you’ve used it to: introduce yourself and others, to describe physical characteristics and personality traits, to indicate place of origin or nationality, to tell time, and to give dates. Spanish has another verb that also means “to be” – estar. You used estar at the beginning of this course to indicate how you are feeling (¿Cómo estás? Estoy bien, gracias.) In addition to indicating how you and others are feeling (which we’ll discuss in a future chapter), estar is used to express location. So, if you are talking about where a person or a thing is located, you will use estar:
|estar (to be)|
|1a||yo estoy||nosotros estamos|
|2a||tú estás||vosotros estáis|
|3a||el ella usted está||ellos ellas ustedes están|
As you should notice, estar has an irregular yo form along with accented endings in all but the nosotros form.
Estar y la locación
To use estar to express the locations of people and things, you’ll need to know some prepositions of location as well:
See the Cultura section in the Study Plan for these activities.