In this chapter, we’ve learned about several different cell components. View this video from Khan Academy to learn more about cells.
Table 1 provides a summary of all the components we covered, as well as their functions and locations.
|Table 1. Components of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells|
|Cell Component||Function||Present in Prokaryotes?||Present in Animal Cells?||Present in Plant Cells?|
|Cytoplasm||Provides turgor pressure to plant cells as fluid inside the central vacuole; site of many metabolic reactions; medium in which organelles are found||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Nucleus||Cell organelle that houses DNA and directs synthesis of ribosomes and proteins||No||Yes||Yes|
|Nucleolus||Darkened area within the nucleus where ribosomal subunits are synthesized.||No||Yes||Yes|
|Mitochondria||ATP production/cellular respiration||No||Yes||Yes|
|Peroxisomes||Oxidizes and thus breaks down fatty acids and amino acids, and detoxifies poisons||No||Yes||Yes|
|Endoplasmic reticulum||Modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids||No||Yes||Yes|
|Golgi apparatus||Modifies, sorts, tags, packages, and distributes lipids and proteins||No||Yes||Yes|
|Vesicles and vacuoles||Storage and transport; digestive function in plant cells||No||Yes||Yes|
|Centrosome||Unspecified role in cell division in animal cells; source of microtubules in animal cells||No||Yes||No|
|Lysosomes||Digestion of macromolecules; recycling of worn-out organelles||No||Yes||No|
|Cytoskeleton||Maintains cell’s shape, secures organelles in specific positions, allows cytoplasm and vesicles to move within cell, and enables unicellular organisms to move independently||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Flagella||Cellular locomotion||Some||Some||No, except for some plant sperm cells.|
|Cilia||Cellular locomotion, movement of particles along extracellular surface of plasma membrane, and filtration||Some||Some||No|
|Plasma membrane||Separates cell from external environment; controls passage of organic molecules, ions, water, oxygen, and wastes into and out of cell||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Cell wall||Protection, structural support and maintenance of cell shape||Yes, primarily peptidoglycan||No||Yes, primarily cellulose|
Let’s look back to our earlier disease list:
- Pompe Disease: characterized by excess accumulation of glycogen in muscle cells
- Leigh Disease: progressive disorder of lesions (dead or dying cells) in the brain
- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy: wasting and weakness in muscles of the shoulders, upper arms, and calf muscles
The following organelles are what cause the each disorder. As you explore the different websites that highlight each disease, think about how the function of these organelles directly relates to the disease symptoms.