Calculus is the mathematics of change, and rates of change are expressed by derivatives. Thus, one of the most common ways to use calculus is to set up an equation containing an unknown function [latex]y=f\left(x\right)[/latex] and its derivative, known as a differential equation. Solving such equations often provides information about how quantities change and frequently provides insight into how and why the changes occur.
Techniques for solving differential equations can take many different forms, including direct solution, use of graphs, or computer calculations. We introduce the main ideas in this chapter and describe them in a little more detail later in the course. In this section we study what differential equations are, how to verify their solutions, some methods that are used for solving them, and some examples of common and useful equations.