### Learning Outcomes

- Use partial fraction decomposition for linear factors
- Simplify expressions using the power property of pxponents

In the Properties of Power Series section, we will look at how to combine, differentiate, and integrate power series. Here we will review how to use partial fraction decomposition for linear factors and how to use the power property of exponents.

## Use Partial Fraction Decomposition for Linear Factors

*(also in Module 5, Skills Review for Infinite Series)*

Partial fraction **decomposition** is used to break up one fraction into two.

We will investigate rational expressions with linear factors in the denominator where the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator. Regardless of the type of expression we are decomposing, the first and most important thing to do is factor the denominator.

### How To: Given a rational expression with distinct linear factors in the denominator, decompose it.

- Use a variable for the original numerators, usually [latex]A,B,[/latex] or [latex]C[/latex], depending on the number of factors, placing each variable over a single factor. For the purpose of this definition, we use [latex]{A}_{n}[/latex] for each numerator
[latex]\frac{P\left(x\right)}{Q\left(x\right)}=\frac{{A}_{1}}{\left({a}_{1}x+{b}_{1}\right)}+\frac{{A}_{2}}{\left({a}_{2}x+{b}_{2}\right)}+\cdots \text{+}\frac{{A}_{n}}{\left({a}_{n}x+{b}_{n}\right)}[/latex]
- Multiply both sides of the equation by the common denominator to eliminate fractions.
- Expand the right side of the equation and collect like terms.
- Set coefficients of like terms from the left side of the equation equal to those on the right side to create a system of equations to solve for the numerators.

### Example: Decomposing a Rational Function with Distinct Linear Factors

Decompose the given **rational expression** with distinct linear factors.

[latex]\dfrac{3x}{\left(x+2\right)\left(x - 1\right)}[/latex]

### Try It

Find the partial fraction decomposition of the following expression.

[latex]\dfrac{x}{\left(x - 3\right)\left(x - 2\right)}[/latex]

### Try It

Some fractions we may come across are special cases that we can decompose into partial fractions with repeated linear factors. We must remember that we account for repeated factors by writing each factor in increasing powers.

### How To: Given a rational expression with repeated linear factors, decompose it.

- Use a variable like [latex]A,B[/latex], or [latex]C[/latex] for the numerators and account for increasing powers of the denominators.
[latex]\dfrac{P\left(x\right)}{Q\left(x\right)}=\dfrac{{A}_{1}}{\left(ax+b\right)}+\dfrac{{A}_{2}}{{\left(ax+b\right)}^{2}}+ \text{. }\text{. }\text{. + }\dfrac{{A}_{n}}{{\left(ax+b\right)}^{n}}[/latex]
- Multiply both sides of the equation by the common denominator to eliminate fractions.
- Expand the right side of the equation and collect like terms.
- Set coefficients of like terms from the left side of the equation equal to those on the right side to create a system of equations to solve for the numerators.

### Example: Decomposing with Repeated Linear Factors

Decompose the given rational expression with repeated linear factors.

[latex]\dfrac{-{x}^{2}+2x+4}{{x}^{3}-4{x}^{2}+4x}[/latex]

### Try It

Find the partial fraction decomposition of the expression with repeated linear factors.

[latex]\dfrac{6x - 11}{{\left(x - 1\right)}^{2}}[/latex]

### Try It

## Simplify Expressions Using the Power Property for Exponents

### A General Note: The Power Rule of Exponents

For any real number [latex]a[/latex] and positive integers [latex]m[/latex] and [latex]n[/latex], the power rule of exponents states that

### Example: USING the Power Rule of Exponents

Write each of the following products with a single base. Do not simplify further.

- [latex]{\left({x}^{2}\right)}^{7}[/latex]
- [latex]{\left({\left(2t\right)}^{5}\right)}^{3}[/latex]
- [latex]{\left({\left(-3\right)}^{5}\right)}^{11}[/latex]