### Essential Concepts

- The arc length of a curve can be calculated using a definite integral.
- The arc length is first approximated using line segments, which generates a Riemann sum. Taking a limit then gives us the definite integral formula. The same process can be applied to functions of [latex]y.[/latex]
- The concepts used to calculate the arc length can be generalized to find the surface area of a surface of revolution.
- The integrals generated by both the arc length and surface area formulas are often difficult to evaluate. It may be necessary to use a computer or calculator to approximate the values of the integrals.

## Key Equations

**Arc Length of a Function of [latex]x[/latex]**

[latex]\text{Arc Length}={\displaystyle\int }_{a}^{b}\sqrt{1+{\left[{f}^{\prime }(x)\right]}^{2}}dx[/latex]**Arc Length of a Function of [latex]y[/latex]**

[latex]\text{Arc Length}={\displaystyle\int }_{c}^{d}\sqrt{1+{\left[{g}^{\prime }(y)\right]}^{2}}dy[/latex]**Surface Area of a Function of [latex]x[/latex]**

[latex]\text{Surface Area}={\displaystyle\int }_{a}^{b}(2\pi f(x)\sqrt{1+{({f}^{\prime }(x))}^{2}})dx[/latex]

## Glossary

- arc length
- the arc length of a curve can be thought of as the distance a person would travel along the path of the curve

- frustum
- a portion of a cone; a frustum is constructed by cutting the cone with a plane parallel to the base

- surface area
- the surface area of a solid is the total area of the outer layer of the object; for objects such as cubes or bricks, the surface area of the object is the sum of the areas of all of its faces