Concept Check

  1. What is suggested by the presence of white blood cells found in the urine?
  2. Why are females more likely to contract bladder infections than males?
  3. What anatomical structures provide protection to the kidney?
  4. Name the structures found in the renal hilum.
  5. What are the major structures comprising the filtration membrane?
  6. Give the formula for net filtration pressure.
  7. Name at least five symptoms of kidney failure.
  8. Which vessels and what part of the nephron are involved in countercurrent multiplication?
  9. Why are the loop of Henle and vasa recta important for the formation of concentrated urine?
  10. What organs produce which hormones or enzymes in the renin–angiotensin system?
  11. What is the role of ADH in water balance?
  12. When you drink beer,urine output increases. Why does this happen?