Mass Communication References

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2004). “Some things you should know about media violence and media literacy,” [web page]. Available: [2004, March 25th].

Allen, R. L., & Hatchett. (1986). “The Media and Social Reality Effects: Self and System Orientations of Blacks.” Communication Research, 13, 97-123. Print.

Baran, Stanley J. Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literacy and Culture. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2002. Print.

Berger, Arthur Asa. The Mass Comm Murders: Five Media Theorists Self-destruct. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. Print.

Briggs, Asa, and Peter Burke. A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Cambridge: Polity, 2009. Print.

Brummett, Barry. Rhetoric in Popular Culture. Fourth ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publ., 2015. Print.

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Elliott, Deni. “Essential shared values and 21st century journalism.” The handbook of mass media ethics (2009): 28-39.

Fidler, Roger F. Mediamorphosis Understanding New Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge, 1997. Print.

Gerbner, George. “Epilogue: Advancing on the Path of Righteousness (Maybe).” Cultivation Analysis: New Directions in Media Effects Research. By Nancy Signorielli and Michael Morgan. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1990. 249-62. Print.

Gordon, Daphne. “Redtailblogger: October 2004.” Redtailblogger: October 2004. The Toronto Star, 28 Jan. 2003. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1989. Print.

Heisenberg, Werner. The Physicist’s Conception of Nature. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958. Print.

Heyman, Rob, and Jo Pierson. “Blending Mass Self-Communication With Advertising In Facebook And Linkedin: Challenges For Social Media And User Empowerment.” International Journal Of Media & Cultural Politics 9.3 (2013): 229-245. Communication & Mass Media Complete. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Hinckley, David. “Average American Watches 5 Hours of TV per Day.” NY Daily News. N.p., 5 Mar. 2014. Web. 17 Dec. 2014.

Huston, Aletha C. Big World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln: U of Nebraska, 1992. Print.

Irvine, Martha. “Corporate America Tries-and Sometimes Fails-when Using Slang Aimed at Young People.” Editorial. Gadsded Times 13 Nov. 2002: A10. Gadsden Times – Google News Archive Search. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Jeffries, Leo W., and Richard M. Perloff. Mass Media Effects. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1997. Print.

Jhally, Sut. The Codes of Advertising: Fetishism and the Political Economy of Meaning in the Consumer Society. New York: Routledge, 1990. Print.

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Kang, Minjeong. “Media Use and the Selective Individual.” Communication Theories for Everyday Life. By John R. Baldwin, Stephen D. Perry, and Mary Anne Moffitt. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2004. 201-11. Print.

Katz, Elihu, and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Personal Influence; the Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications. Glencoe, IL: Free, 1955. Print.

Kilbourne, Jean. Deadly Persuasion: Why Women and Girls Must Fight the Addictive Power of Advertising. New York, NY: Free, 1999. Print.

Klapper, Joseph T. The Effects of Mass Communication. New York: Free of Glencoe, 1960. Print.

Lazarfeld, Paul F., and Robert K. Merton. “Mass Communication, Popular Taste, and Organized Social Action.” The Process and Effects of Mass Communication. By Wilbur Schramm and Donald F. Roberts. Urbana: U of Illinois, 1971. 554-78. Print.

Lazarsfeld, Paul Felix, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet. The People’s Choice How the Voter Makes up His Mind in a Presidential Campaign. New York: Columbia U Pr., 1944. Print.

Lee, Vanna. “Global 2000: The World’s Largest Media Companies Of 2014.” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 07 May 2015. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.

LeFleur, Melvin L. “Where Have the Milestones Gone? The Decline of Significant Research on the Process and Effects of Mass Communication.” Mass Communication & Society. 2nd ed. Vol. 1.1. Boston: College of Communication, Boston U, 1998. 85-98. Print.

Lippmann, Walter. Public Opinion. New York: Greenbook Publications, 2010. Print.

Littlejohn, Stephen W., and Karen A. Foss. Theories of Human Communication. 10th ed. Long Grove, Ill.: Waveland, 2011. Print.

Lowery, Shearon, and Melvin L. DeFleur. Milestones in Mass Communication Research Media Effects. 3rd ed. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman USA, 1995. Print.

Lutz, Ashley. “These 6 Corporations Control 90% Of The Media In America.” Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc, 14 June 2012. Web. 20 Nov. 2014.

McChesney, Robert Waterman. Corporate Media and the Threat to Democracy. New York: Seven Stories, 1997. Print.

Mcleary, Paul., “Blogging the Long War.” Columbia Journalism Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Aug. 2015.

McLuhan, Marshall. The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962. Print.

McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964. Print.

McLuhan, Marshall, and Quentin Fiore. The Medium Is the Massage. New York: Random House, 1967. Print.

McLuhan, Marshall. Essential McLuhan. Ed. Eric McLuhan and Frank Zingrone. New York, NY: Basic, 1995. Print.

McQuail, Denis. “With the Benefit of Hindsight: Reflections on Uses and Gratifications Research.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication,1984. Print.

McQuail, Denis. (1994). Mass Communication: An Introduction (2nd). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Print.

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Nellis, B. Kelly “Technology and Social Change: The Interactive Media Environment.” In J. Baldwin, S. Perry, & M. Moffat (Eds.). Communication Theories for Everyday Life 244-258. New York: Pearson. 2004. Print.

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O’Sullivan, Patrick. B. (2003). “Masspersonal Communication.” Unpublished Paper, Illinois State University. Print.

Paul, Bryant., Salwen, Micheal., & Dupagne, Micheal. (2000). “The Third-person Effect: A Meta-analysis of the Perceptual Hypothesis.” Mass Communication & Society, 3, 57-85.” Print.

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Sanders, J. (2003, January 19). “Advertisers, the Middle-aged Dis Youth with Slang.” The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 10, 2003 from Lexis-Nexis Database.” Print

Schramm, Wilbur. Mass Communications: A Book of Readings Selected and Edited by the Director of the Institute for Communication Research at Stanford University. Urbana: U of Illinois, 1949. Print.

Smith, Bruce Lannes, Harold D. Lasswell, and Ralph D. Casey. Propaganda, Communication, and Public Opinion; a Comprehensive Reference Guide. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1946. Print.

Sparks, Glenn G., and Robert M. Ogles. “The Difference between Fear of Victimization and the Probability of Being Victimized: Implications for Cultivation.”Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 34.3 (1990): 351-58. Print.

Spitulnik, Debra. “The Social Circulation of Media Discourse and the Mediation of Communities.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 6.2 (1996): 161-87. Print.

Steinberg, S H, and John Trevitt. Five Hundred Years of Printing. London: British Library, 1996. Print.

Troldahl, Verling C. “A Field Test of a Modified “Two-Step Flow of Communication” Model.” Public Opinion Quarterly 30.4 (1966): 609-29. Print.

Troldahl, Verling C., and Robert Van Dam. “Face-To-Face Communication About Major Topics in the News.” Public Opinion Quarterly 29.4 (1965): 626-34. Print.

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Wiio, Osmo. (1978). Wiio’s Laws-and Some Others. Espoo, Finland: Welin-Goos.Print.

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Wright, Charles R. “Functional Analysis and Mass Communication.” Public Opinion Quarterly 24.4 (1960): 605-20. Print.