Mass Communication Summary


Societies have always needed effective and efficient means to transmit information. Mass communication is the outgrowth of this need. If you remember our definition of mass communication as the public transfer of messages through media or technology driven channels to a large number of recipients, you can easily identify the multiple forms of mass communication you rely on in your personal, academic, and professional lives. These encompass print, auditory, visual, interactive media, and social media forms. A relatively recent mass communication phenomenon known as mass-personal communication combines mass communication channels with interpersonal communication and relationships, where individuals are now gaining access to technology that allows them to reach large audiences.

While mass communication is vital to the success of social movements and political participation it has seven basic functions. The first of which is surveillance, or the “watch dog” role. Correlation occurs when an audience receives facts and usable information from mass media sources. When the most outrageous or fantastic stories are presented we are witnessing the sensationalization function of media. Needing an escape from routines or stress we turn to media for its entertainment value. As a cultural institution, mass communication transmits cultural values, norms and behaviors, mobilizes audiences, and validates dominant cultural values.

As media technology has evolved, so have the scholarly theories for understanding them. The five theories we discussed are different primarily in the degree of passivity versus activity they grant the audience. The magic-bullet theory assumes a passive audience while the two-step-flow and multi-step-flow theories suggest that there is a reciprocal relationship between the audience and the message. The theory of uses and gratification suggests that audiences pick and choose media to satisfy their individual needs. Gerbner’s cultivation theory takes a long-term perspective by suggesting that media is one of many cultural institutions responsible for shaping or cultivating attitudes.

Because of mass communication’s unquestionable role in our lives, media literacy skills are vital for any responsible consumer and citizen. Specifically, we can become media literate by understanding and respecting the power of mass communication messages, understanding media content by paying attention, understanding emotional versus reasoned responses to mass communication, developing heightened expectations of mass communication content, understanding genre conventions and recognizing when they’re mixed, understanding the internal language of mass communication, and above all—thinking critically!



  1. What is the role of the oral tradition in today’s society?
  2. Does media directly influence individuals?
  3. What determines what media an individual will use?
  4. Is it the form of the media or its content that most deeply influences us?
  5. Which mass communication theory do you feel most accurately portrays your media experiences? Why?
  6. With constantly changing technology, what do you see as the future of mass communication?
  7. How involved should the government be in protecting us from media effects? Where do you draw the line between free speech and indecency? Is censorship ever warranted?
  8. How many social media sites are you apart of and actively participate in? Does one site take priority over the other?



  • cold media
  • correlation
  • cultivation theory
  • entertainment
  • gatekeepers
  • global village
  • hot media
  • magic bullet theory
  • mass communication
  • masspersonal communication
  • media literacy
  • mobilization
  • multi-step flow theory
  • opinion followers
  • opinion leaders
  • popular culture
  • sensationalization
  • surveillance
  • youth
  • transmission
  • two-step flow theory
  • uses and gratification theory
  • validations