During the mid-1900’s, teachers started to express their concerns about managing classrooms. There was not any systematic approach developed by then. Traditionally, teachers used the authoritative assertion techniques, however, this technique did not last long and began to fade gradually (Allen, 1996). Later, researchers began to observe teachers all over the country to study what worked well and what did not for almost a decade from 1969 to 1979. This led to a systematic development of classroom management models.
There are several models that have been developed over the years. Allen (1996) in his research “Seven Models of Discipline” summarizes seven systematic models of classroom management borrowing from Charles’ book Building Classroom Discipline: From Models to Practice (1985). These models were a derivative of extensive classroom observations studying the student- teacher behavior in addition to considering the psychological aspects of humans (Allen, 1996, p. 1). They are:
- The Kounin Model: Withitness, Alerting and Group Management.
- The Neo-Skinnerian Model: Shaping Desired Behavior.
- The Ginott Model: Addressing the Situation with Sane Messages.
- The Glasser Model: Good Behavior comes from Good Choices.
- The Dreikurs Model: Confronting Mistaken Goals.
- The Canter Model: Assertively taking charge
- The Jones Model: Body language, Incentive Systems, and providing Efficient help. (see Allen, 1996, p. 2-9 for detailed description of each model)
Over time scholars built on these models and developed other models based on their classroom needs. Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne (2006) discuss three classroom management models “based on the premise that teachers can diversify their skill set in order to best meet the needs of different groups of students” (as cited in ASCD, 2013).
First, the Noninterventionist model where a teacher helps students meet their potential by “enhancing personal growth building a strong, positive relationship, and assisting students with developing problem-solving abilities” (ASCD, 2013, p. 1). The end goal is to help student reach their potential independent of teacher’s direction.
Second, the Interventionist model where it is believed that students’ development is a “product of environmental conditions brought on by intervention in a student’s daily surroundings” (ASCD, 2013, p. 2). This approach is usually practiced in a positive reinforcement classroom where clear rules and classroom procedures have been established. Further, students are rewarded, or face consequences based on these classroom procedures (ASCD, 2013) The next section on Characteristics of Effective Classroom Management details the keys to successful classroom management and ways to establish a safe learning environment.
Third, the Interactivist model as the name suggests calls for teachers to consider each student’s learning and behavioral needs further helping them understand “their actions and consequences” (ASCD, 2013, p. 2). This approach makes students accountable for their actions and own learning.