Some signal transduction pathways regulate the transcription of RNA. Others regulate the translation of proteins from mRNA. An example of a protein that regulates translation in the nucleus is the MAP kinase ERK. ERK is activated in a phosphorylation cascade when epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds the EGF receptor. Upon phosphorylation, ERK enters the nucleus and activates a protein kinase that, in turn, regulates protein translation (Figure 1).
The second kind of protein with which PKC can interact is a protein that acts as an inhibitor. An inhibitor is a molecule that binds to a protein and prevents it from functioning or reduces its function. In this case, the inhibitor is a protein called Iκ-B, which binds to the regulatory protein NF-κB. (The symbol κ represents the Greek letter kappa.) When Iκ-B is bound to NF-κB, the complex cannot enter the nucleus of the cell, but when Iκ-B is phosphorylated by PKC, it can no longer bind NF-κB, and NF-κB (a transcription factor) can enter the nucleus and initiate RNA transcription. In this case, the effect of phosphorylation is to inactivate an inhibitor and thereby activate the process of transcription.
Increase in Cellular Metabolism
The result of another signaling pathway affects muscle cells. The activation of β-adrenergic receptors in muscle cells by adrenaline leads to an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) inside the cell. Also known as epinephrine, adrenaline is a hormone (produced by the adrenal gland attached to the kidney) that readies the body for short-term emergencies. Cyclic AMP activates PKA (protein kinase A), which in turn phosphorylates two enzymes. The first enzyme promotes the degradation of glycogen by activating intermediate glycogen phosphorylase kinase (GPK) that in turn activates glycogen phosphorylase (GP) that catabolizes glycogen into glucose. (Note that your body converts excess glucose to glycogen for short-term storage. When energy is needed, glycogen is quickly reconverted to glucose.) Phosphorylation of the second enzyme, glycogen synthase (GS), inhibits its ability to form glycogen from glucose. In this manner, a muscle cell obtains a ready pool of glucose by activating its formation via glycogen degradation and by inhibiting the use of glucose to form glycogen, thus preventing a futile cycle of glycogen degradation and synthesis. The glucose is then available for use by the muscle cell in response to a sudden surge of adrenaline—the “fight or flight” reflex.
Cell signaling pathways also play a major role in cell division. Cells do not normally divide unless they are stimulated by signals from other cells. The ligands that promote cell growth are called growth factors. Most growth factors bind to cell-surface receptors that are linked to tyrosine kinases. These cell-surface receptors are called receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Activation of RTKs initiates a signaling pathway that includes a G-protein called RAS, which activates the MAP kinase pathway described earlier. The enzyme MAP kinase then stimulates the expression of proteins that interact with other cellular components to initiate cell division.
Cancer biologists study the molecular origins of cancer with the goal of developing new prevention methods and treatment strategies that will inhibit the growth of tumors without harming the normal cells of the body. As mentioned earlier, signaling pathways control cell growth. These signaling pathways are controlled by signaling proteins, which are, in turn, expressed by genes. Mutations in these genes can result in malfunctioning signaling proteins. This prevents the cell from regulating its cell cycle, triggering unrestricted cell division and cancer. The genes that regulate the signaling proteins are one type of oncogene, which is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. The gene encoding RAS is an oncogene that was originally discovered when mutations in the RAS protein were linked to cancer. Further studies have indicated that 30 percent of cancer cells have a mutation in the RAS gene that leads to uncontrolled growth. If left unchecked, uncontrolled cell division can lead tumor formation and metastasis, the growth of cancer cells in new locations in the body.
Cancer biologists have been able to identify many other oncogenes that contribute to the development of cancer. For example, HER2 is a cell-surface receptor that is present in excessive amounts in 20 percent of human breast cancers. Cancer biologists realized that gene duplication led to HER2 overexpression in 25 percent of breast cancer patients and developed a drug called Herceptin (trastuzumab). Herceptin is a monoclonal antibody that targets HER2 for removal by the immune system. Herceptin therapy helps to control signaling through HER2. The use of Herceptin in combination with chemotherapy has helped to increase the overall survival rate of patients with metastatic breast cancer.
In Summary: Expression and Growth
Many pathways influence the cell by initiating gene expression, and the methods utilized are quite numerous. Some pathways activate enzymes that interact with DNA transcription factors. Others modify proteins and induce them to change their location in the cell. Depending on the status of the organism, cells can respond by storing energy as glycogen or fat, or making it available in the form of glucose. A signal transduction pathway allows muscle cells to respond to immediate requirements for energy in the form of glucose. Cell growth is almost always stimulated by external signals called growth factors. Uncontrolled cell growth leads to cancer, and mutations in the genes encoding protein components of signaling pathways are often found in tumor cells.