Cytoplasm

Before we begin looking at individual organelles, we do need to briefly address the matrix in which they sit: the cytoplasm. The part of the cell referred to as cytoplasm is slightly different in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In eukaryotic cells, which have a nucleus, the cytoplasm is everything between the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope. In prokaryotes, which lack a nucleus, cytoplasm simply means everything found inside the plasma membrane.

One major component of the cytoplasm in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the gel-like cytosol, a water-based solution that contains ions, small molecules, and macromolecules. In eukaryotes, the cytoplasm also includes membrane-bound organelles, which are suspended in the cytosol. The cytoskeleton, a network of fibers that supports the cell and gives it shape, is also part of the cytoplasm and helps to organize cellular components.

Even though the cytosol is mostly water, it has a semi-solid, Jello-like consistency because of the many proteins suspended in it. The cytosol contains a rich broth of macromolecules and smaller organic molecules, including glucose and other simple sugars, polysaccharides, amino acids, nucleic acids, and fatty acids. Ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, and other elements are also found in the cytosol. Many metabolic reactions, including protein synthesis, take place in this part of the cell.